what is unix?


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  1. Hi! Thanks for the question.

    Our first link provides a very brief definition of what Unix is.

    ?UNIX — A computer operating system (the basic software running on a

    computer, underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets). It

    is the most common operating system for servers on the Internet.?

    ?RIO Glossary?


    The next links will provide more in depth discussions on what Unix

    actually is so it would be good to read over them to get a better


    ?What is Unix??


    ?What Is UNIX??


    ?What is Unix??




    ?UNIX Introduction?


    Search terms used:

    ?What is Unix? basics introduction

    I hope these links would help you in your research. Before rating this

    answer, please ask for a clarification if you have a question or if

    you would need further information.

    Thanks for visiting us.



    Google Answers Researcher

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I have started taking mega doses of phenylalanine (>5gm/day) and I

have noticed a remarkable boost in my libido. There are conflicting

reports on the internet about the safety of Phenylalanine

supplementation. One study in which they gave subjects 5gm/day showed

no adverse effects. There are many websites that state that there are

no known adverse effects from phenylalanine supplementation. Other

websites say that phenylalanine is an excitotoxin and can cause

neurological problems. But this has been shown primarily in invitro

studies of the effects of Phenylalanine on neurons and in infants with

phenylketonuria. My question is whether an ADULT who has an intact

blood-brain barrier and all the necessary enzymes to metabolize

Phenylalanine can take supplementation and if so at what dose?


2 thoughts on “Hi

  1. Good afternoon johnman-ga and thank you for the question.

    In all the reports I have seen online concerning Phenylalanine (not to

    be confused with articles re: aspartame/aparsate), all have stated

    that to the normal human being, ingestion of Phenylalanine is not

    harmful UNLESS you have penylketonuria (PKU), take certain medications

    or take high doses.

    PLEASE understand, I am NOT a doctor, nor do I play one on TV,

    however, I will state as a friendly warning, because of the potential

    for side effects and interactions with medications, ANY dietary

    supplement should be taken only under the supervision of a

    knowledgeable healthcare provider. Please contact your family doctor

    if you have any more questions.


    Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid, which means that it is

    essential to human health but cannot be manufactured by the body. For

    this reason, phenylalanine must be obtained from food. It is available

    in three chemical forms:

    1. L-phenylalanine, the natural form of phenylalanine found in

    proteins throughout the body;

    2. D-phenylalanine, a mirror image of L-phenylalanine that is

    synthesized in a laboratory (not found in food); and

    3. DL-phenylalanine, a combination of the previous two forms.

    The body converts phenylalanine into tyrosine, another amino acid

    essential for making proteins, certain brain chemicals, and thyroid

    hormones. Symptoms of phenylalanine deficiency include confusion, lack

    of energy, decreased alertness, decreased memory, and diminished


    Rare metabolic disorder (phenylketonuria, a.k.a PKU) occurs in people

    who are missing an enzyme that is needed to properly metabolize

    phenylalanine. People with PKU who digest phenylalanine stand the

    chance of developing mental retardation, especially in children.

    Even though children seem to be most highly effected, adults with PKU

    will experience mental and intellectual disturbances after an intake

    of phenylalanine.

    Phenylalanine can be taken as a capsule, powder, or tablet or used as

    a topical cream. Recommended dosages of phenylalanine vary depending

    on the health condition being treated. Supplements are recommended 15

    to 30 minutes before meals.


    According to the National Research Council, the daily recommended

    dietary allowances (RDAs) for phenylalanine are as follows:


    Birth to 4 months: 125 mg per kilogram of body weight per day

    Children 5 months to 2 years: 69 mg per kilogram of body weight per day

    Children 3 to 12 years: 22 mg per kilogram of body weight per day

    The combination of oral and topical phenylalanine (together with

    ultraviolet light) have been used to treat children with vitiligo. The

    dose and appropriate length of time to continue the therapy would be

    determined by your physician.


    Teenagers and adults: 14 mg per kilogram of body weight per day

    Some experts suggest that adults may need as much as 39 mg per

    kilogram of body weight per day for general health and doses as high

    as 50 to 100 mg per kilogram have been used in studies of those with

    vitiligo. The most common amounts used range from 750 to 3,000 mg per

    day for adults.




    Source: University of Maryland Medical Center

    ( http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ConsSupplements/Phenylalaninecs.html )

    * * * * * * * * * *

    "High blood concentrations of L-phenylalanine are harmful to human brains

    in at least three situations:

    (a) In older than 6 months old children and adults with mature brains,

    high blood concentrations will prolong performance time, slow brain

    wave cycles (EEG) and reduce neurotransmitter production in a

    reversible manner.

    (b) In newborns to 6 months old with rapidly growing brains elevated blood

    phenylalanine produces irreversible brain damage by slowing migration of

    oligodendroglia (brain cells) and altering myelin (nerve insulation)


    (c) In pregnancy, if the mother's blood phenylalanine is raised in high

    concentrations, her child's brain development can be irreversibly damaged. "


    ( http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/02p0317/02P-0317_emc-000424.txt )

    * * * * * * * * * *

    INTERRACTIONS: (the following are drugs that I have identified that

    interact with Phenylalanine)

    Antidepressant Medications, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) –

    Phenylalanine may cause a severe increase in blood pressure in people

    taking MAOIs (such as phenelzine, tranylcypromine, pargyline, and

    selegiline). This severe increase in blood pressure (also called

    "hypertensive crisis") can lead to a heart attack or stroke. For this

    reason, individuals taking MAOIs should avoid foods and supplements

    containing phenylalanine.

    Baclofen – The absorption of baclofen, a medication used to relieve

    muscle spasms, may be reduced by phenylalanine. Therefore, it is best

    to avoid taking this medication with a meal, especially one that is

    high in protein content, or with phenylalanine supplements.

    Levodopa – A few case reports suggest that phenylalanine may reduce

    the effectiveness of levodopa, a medication used to treat Parkinson's

    disease. Some researchers speculate that phenylalanine may interfere

    with the absorption of this medication. Therefore, phenylalanine

    should not be taken at the same time as levodopa.

    = = = = = = = = = = =

    The following are articles I have found regarding the safety of an

    individual who takes phenylalanine:

    ?The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has placed phenylalanine on its

    GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list, largely due to it vast usage

    and because of the availability of scientific literature showing the

    safety and non-toxic nature of PA.

    Additional less documented and as yet unsubstantiated uses have been

    for improving memory, increasing mental alertness, promoting "sexual

    interest", and the suppression of appetite. Considering the various

    effects produced during depression, and the ability of phenylalanine

    as an anti-depressant, these uses may be more of a consequence of the

    depressive state that has been modified.?

    Source: Nutrition Farm

    ( http://www.nutritionfarm.com/Glossary/GLOSSARY/REPORTS/dlpareport.htm )

    * * * * * * * * * * *

    The Food and Drug Administration classifies phenylalanine as ASP,

    meaning ?Fully up-to-date toxicology information has been sought.?

    Source: Food and Drug Administration GRAS List

    ( http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/eafus.html )

    * * * * * * * * * * *

    ?It may not have been proven, however, that taking phenylalanine

    supplements of, let's say, 500 mg a day will straighten out the

    absence of sexual desire. The dosage may be insignificant, or there

    may be limitations to absorbency, and so on. Conventional wisdom is

    that taking phenylalanine supplements will not hurt one's sex and

    general life (unless one is a phenylketonuric), while it may or may

    not mean an improvement.

    For its prosexual benefits, phenylalanine is certainly not a wonder

    drug such as Viagra.

    Among the additional alleged health benefits of phenylalanine and

    phenylalanine supplementation are a use in the suppression of pain and

    as an weight loss aid through the suppression of appetite.?

    * * * * * * * * * * *

    ?To people who are not phenylketonurics, there is by and large little

    danger from phenylalanine, especially if it's part of a normal diet.

    The exception are people on monoamine oxidase inhibiting drugs (MAO

    inhibitors), as phenylalanine is converted into the amino acid

    tyrosine. If the enzyme which breaks down monoamines such as tyrosine

    is inhibited, the body is flooded with substances that can cause

    extreme hypertension. ?

    Source: Pphenylalanine.net

    ( http://www.phenylalanine.net/ )

    If this answer requires further explanation, please request

    clarification before rating it, and I'll be happy to look into this



    Google Answers Researcher

    Additional Sources:

    Food & Drug Administration

    ( http://www.fda.gov/ )

    Web MD

    ( http://www.webmd.com )

    National Research Council:

    ( http://www.nationalacademies.org/ )

    Google Search Terms:

    phenylalanine safety reports

    ( ://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&c2coff=1&q=phenylalanine+safety+reports )

    libido phenylalanine reports

    ( ://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&c2coff=1&q=libido+phenylalanine++reports )

  2. I would like to clarify that 1 Gram (gm) = 1000 Milligrams (mg)

    If you are taking 5gm a day, that is equivalent to 5000 mg a day.

    Please note in my answer above, DOSES IN EXCESS OF 5,000 MG A DAY MAY



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